The scientific basis of the project and (optional) translational aspects of the project,
It was previously thought that depression preceded low self-esteem and that once the depression was treated, then self-esteem would also improve. However, a number of longitudinal systematic reviews have now shown that low self-esteem precedes depression.
Therefore, if self-esteem can be improved, depression can be improved. There is little in the literature on the effectiveness of self-esteem interventions. Brown  has found that day-long self-confidence workshops for 459 adults in large groups (n=30) can lead to reduced depression (d=0.55) at 3 month follow-up in a RCT. However, there is no equivalent intervention for adolescents. There are few preventative interventions for adolescent depression.
The aims of this Phd study will be to review the literature and co-produce the depression programme with young people, adapting the original manual for adults. There will be opportunities to think about the content and ways of delivering the programme to young people.
The techniques and skills that will be learnt
These will include systematic review techniques, acquire knowledge in developmental psychopathology, co-production techniques to develop the new intervention for young people and evaluating the intervention
Provide a set of over-arching objectives for each year of the PhD project.
Year 1: Systematic review of self-esteem interventions for young people
Year 2: Co-production of new intervention, using the MRC complex intervention
Year 3: Pilotting the new intervention and evaluating it for feasibility and acceptability and Writing up
Orth, U., et al., Low self-esteem is a risk factor for depressive symptoms from young adulthood to old age. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2009. 118(3): p. 472-478.
Horrell, L., et al., One-day cognitive–behavioural therapy self-confidence workshops for people with depression: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2014. 204(3): p. 222-233.